What is SMPS power supply - Switched-mode power supply in Mizoram

SMPS has a full switch mode power supply; A smps power supply is an electronic circuit used to supply electricity to equipment or loads such as computers or machines. These electrical and electronic loads require different strengths in different ranges and with unique characteristics. For this reason, we use some smps power supply electronic converters or power converters to convert electricity to the desired shape with the desired properties.

What is SMPS power supply - Switched-mode power supply in Mizoram
Switched-mode power supply in Mizoram

Switched-mode power supply in Mizoram

Simple smps power supply is used in many things today such as computers, refrigerators, microwave ovens, DVD players, and DTH. Friends, in simple words, SMPS switch mode power supply is used in electronics. High frequency smps operates at a voltage of 220 to 240 in all electronic devices. If we talk about the computer, if they supply directly 240-voltage power to the computer board, then it will burn out and its board will be damaged. To avoid all these hassles and losses, a system was developed so that after supplying 220 or 240 volts, it could be divided into different parts and sent to different parts. This is called a SMPS.

How SMPS works

The SMPS device uses switch power supply regulators to regulate and stabilize the output voltage that load current switches on and off. This produces an average voltage between the off and the appropriate power for the device. Unlike the linear switch power supply, the SMPS has very little time to switch between transistor load dissipation, full on and full stop mode and high consumption transfers, which reduces waste energy.

Input phase

The AC voltage input supply signal 50 Hz is transmitted directly to the rectifier and filter circuit without the use of any transformer. There will be a lot of variation in this output and the cost of capacitor capacity should be higher to handle the input fluctuations. This is assigned to the Central Switching section of the unregistered dc smps power supply.

Switching section

This section uses a high-speed switching device such as a power transistor or MOSFT that switches mode power supply on and off according to the variables and this output is given to the primary of the transformer in this section. The transformer used here is much smaller and lighter than the devices used to smps voltage supply 60 Hz. They are very efficient and therefore have a high conversion rate

Output phase

The output signal from the switching section is re-corrected and filtered to obtain the desired DC voltage. This is a regulated output voltage, which is then transferred to the control circuit which is the feedback circuit. The final output is obtained after considering the output signal.

Control unit

The picture shows the interior of the smps control unit. The output sensor senses the signal and connects it to the control unit. The signal is separated from the other part so that the sudden increase does not affect the circuit. A reference voltage error is given as the signal input of the amplifier, which is a comparison that compares the desired signal level of the signal.

The final voltage level is maintained by controlling the cutting frequency. This error is controlled by comparing the input to the amplifier, the output of which helps to decide whether to increase or decrease the frequency. The PWM oscillator produces a standard PWM wave fixed frequency.

  • You can get a better idea of ​​the full functioning of smps power supply by looking at the icon below.
  • SMPS is mostly used where voltage switching is not a problem at all and where system performance really matters. Here are some tips to keep in mind regarding SMPS.
  • The SMPS circuit is strengthened by switching and therefore the voltage varies continuously.
  • The switching device operates in saturation or cut off mode.
  • The switching time is adjusted by adjusting the duty cycle.
  • The output voltage is controlled by the switching time of the feedback circuit.

 

The performance of smps power supply is high because instead of wasting maximum power in the form of heat, it constantly changes its input to control the output.

 

Types of SMPS

  • DC to DC Converter
  • Forward converter
  • Flyback Converter
  • Self-Oscillating Flyback Converter

SMPS  DC to DC converter

 

The concept of Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) is explained below by SMPS DC to DC Converter. The load is given a constant voltage supply (VOUT) which is derived from the primary source of the voltage supply VIN. Individual resistors of the current source connected in series (RS) or shunt (IS) control the value of VOUT. In order to control the VOUT and keep the RS stable through the changing IS, the converter loses a lot of power.

It is fed a step-down transformer, which is equivalent to the weight and size characteristics of a 50 Hz transformer unit. The output of the phase transformer is fed into the forward rectifier. The filtered and corrected output DC power is used as the source for the load, and a sample of this output power is used as feedback to control the output voltage. At this feedback voltage, the oscillator is time controlled and one is off.

We control the output of the SMPS switching power supply using PWM. As shown in the circuit above, the switch is driven by a PWM oscillator so that the power fed to the step-down transformer is indirectly controlled and therefore the pulse width signal and the output is controlled. Voltages are inversely proportional to each other.

Forward converter

Forward Converter is a type of SMPS converter that transmits current through a square. When the transistor is turned off completely, the diode transmits power. This way the load is loaded during both periods but the square saves power. The square oven stores energy during the period and sends some energy to the output load.

Flyback converter

SMPS switching mode regulator circuits with an output capacity of less than 100W are generally flyback converter type SMPS switch mode and are much simpler and lower cost circuits than other SMPS circuits. Therefore, it is often used for low power consumption.

With constant amplitude, the irregular input voltage is rapidly converted to the desired output voltage using which the MOSFET switching frequency is about 100 kHz. Voltage isolation can be achieved using a transformer. The switch operation can be controlled using PWM control when implementing the practical flyback converter.

The display of flyback transformers is different

Features compared to ordinary transformer. The two sides of the flyback transformer act as indicators of a magnetic pair. The output of this transformer is from diodes and capacitors which are optimized and filtered.

Self skating flyback converter

This is the simplest converter based on the flyback principle. During the delivery time, the switching transistor moves in the region as a slope which is one / LP.

SMPS power connector

SMPS supplies power to various components of a computer system, such as a power connector, motherboard, hard disk drive, and other components. A SMPS power supply is an electric connector used to carry a DC high voltage SMPS. There are five types of connectors.

  • ATX Power Connectors
  • CPU 4+ 4 Pin Connectors
  • SATA Power Connector
  • Peripheral 4 Pin Molex Connector
  • 20 + 4 Pin ATX or Motherboard Connectors

 

Pros of SMPS

 

  • It weighs very little.
  • Its production range is very high.
  • It emits very little heat, depending on its capacity.
  • In addition, it is small and light, not as big and full as a transformer.
  • The biggest advantage of SMPS is that it has the ability to work as it also reduces power shortages easily.

 

Cons of SMPS

 

  • Its functions are quite complex.
  • In addition, SMPS can cause harmonic distortion.
  • High frequency electrical noise.
  • It can only act as a step down regulator.
  • There is only one output voltage.
  • The function of SMPS is very easy to understand.